By William Minter
Of all of the many violent chapters in fresh Southern African heritage, the conflicts in Angola and Mozambique on account that independence in 1975 were the main protracted, complicated and lethal for thousands of civilians. William Minter argues that they symbolize a brand new type of non-conventional battle attribute of the 'contra' interval - neither vintage guerrilla conflict nor ordinary exterior aggression, yet comprising components of civil struggle ruled by way of nearby and worldwide exterior powers.He examines the Unita and Renamo social constructions, exterior interventions, styles of army recruitment, conditioning, logistics and procedure, and the error made via the Angolan and Mozambican states.
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Additional resources for Apartheid's Contras: An Inquiry into the Roots of War in Angola and Mozambique
After three years, we realised what the school wanted us to learn – how to keep house, how to wash clothes, how to cook food and those sorts of things; things we already knew how to do before going there. Those were the reasons we came, under the auspices of the Anglican church. After this we were taken to the ‘coaching college’. The purpose of that coaching college was to select those who wanted to go to university. This is what was said, ‘Both of you must go to this college. These are the things of value for you both: the English language, history, Latin, maths and Māori.
The decline of marae accelerated, especially those that were in remote rural communities. Kōhanga reo (Māori-language preschools) located within marae or tribal community settings also struggled, and many have closed down in the past decade or so. Despite the hardships and difficulties, marae continued to be important to tribal communities. This was particularly evident in the 1987 Ōrākei claim. As explained by Ngāti Whātua ō Ōrākei kaumātua Sir Hugh Kawharu, the restoration of their marae was central to their identity, to their mana; it was a beginning to the hapū recapturing the status of tangata whenua (Kawharu, 1989; 2004).
Throughout these transformations, the ātea became the exclusive political domain from where the rangatira (kin leaders) exercised social and economic power over surrounding lands, waterways and associated resources. Meanwhile, the tūāhu remained tapu shrines that were maintained away from pā-kāinga. They were sites where spiritual negotiation between tohunga āhurewa and atua (gods, great ancestral beings) occurred, ensuring the wellbeing and prosperity of the community (Tapsell, 1998). * These elaborate, palisade-protected marae locales (Kawharu, 2010) were mostly situated on terraced hilltops, bluffs and promontories.
Apartheid's Contras: An Inquiry into the Roots of War in Angola and Mozambique by William Minter