By Thomas Paterson, J. Garry Clifford, Robert Brigham, Michael Donoghue, Kenneth Hagan
This best-selling textual content provides the simplest synthesis of present scholarship on hand to stress the subject matter of expansionism and its manifestations.
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Extra info for American Foreign Relations: A History, Volume 1: To 1920
Although economic woes and Shays’s Rebellion provided the immediate impetus for reform, the Founders had foreign relations in mind, too. The federal Constitution, approved by the Philadelphia assembly and ratified by the states over the next two years, eliminated most of the weaknesses that had plagued diplomacy under the Articles of Confederation. A central government consisting of an executive, a bicameral legislature, and a judiciary—all designed to balance one another—replaced the weak confederation of sovereign states.
Since it came at a low point in the military struggle in America, Vergennes might have felt compelled to accept Austro-Russian mediation (the terms would not have recognized American independence) in 1781 had not English king George III stubbornly resisted any solution short of complete submission by the American colonies. The French matched obstinacy with obduracy. Whatever the entanglements and temptations of the European continent, France was intent on defeating England by backing American independence.
Petersburg to gain formal adherence to the league by treaty. It was an impossible mission. Aside from the obvious incongruity of a belligerent nation attempting to join an alliance of neutrals, Catherine would not risk war with England by granting recognition prematurely. Her real purpose was to divert British attention while preparing to seize the Crimea from Ottoman Turkey. 65 Formal relations with Russia did not begin until 1809, when Catherine’s grandson, Tsar Alexander I, received as American minister John Quincy Adams, who as a fourteen-year-old had been Dana’s secretary during the abortive wartime mission.
American Foreign Relations: A History, Volume 1: To 1920 by Thomas Paterson, J. Garry Clifford, Robert Brigham, Michael Donoghue, Kenneth Hagan