By John L. Provis, Jannie S. J. van Deventer
This is a state-of-the-art file due to the paintings of RILEM Technical Committee 224-AAM within the interval 2007-2013. The file summarises study to this point within the sector of alkali-activated binders and concretes, with a specific specialise in the subsequent components: binder layout and characterisation, longevity checking out, commercialisation, standardisation, and delivering a old context for this rapidly-growing examine field.
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Additional resources for Alkali Activated Materials: State-of-the-Art Report, RILEM TC 224-AAM
7 Development of Alkali-Activated Cements in Western Europe and North America Metallurgical, and particularly blast furnace, slags have long been used as cementitious constituents in concretes in western Europe, with developments in this area dating as far back as at least the 1860–1870s in France and Germany , and 1905 in the USA . Fly ash was first used in concrete in the USA in the 1930s . The first use of alkalis along with hydraulic or latent hydraulic components to form a binder dates to the early 1900s, when the German scientist Kühl reported  studies on the setting behaviour of mixtures of ground slag and alkaline components.
A vast number of patents and standards were produced on the earlier slag mixes, but this documentation has been largely inaccessible in the West. The Kiev team has continued under the supervision of Kryvenko to develop mix designs for different raw materials and applications [32, 112, 113]. Details of 2 Historical Aspects and Overview 33 several of the applications in which their materials have been utilised are provided in Chaps. 11 and 12 of this Report; it is reported that more than 3 × 106 m3 of alkaliactivated concretes were poured in the former Soviet Union prior to 1989 .
The driving force behind research in Spain to develop alternative cements based on the alkali activation of industrial waste (blast furnace slag, fly ash, mining debris and so on), as in many other European countries, is essentially the pursuit of new construction materials able to compete in performance with OPC, but with a much lower environmental impact. These studies are undertaken within the framework of “sustainable” construction, where materials were and continue to be a fundamental part of the building process.
Alkali Activated Materials: State-of-the-Art Report, RILEM TC 224-AAM by John L. Provis, Jannie S. J. van Deventer