By M.-F. Schulz-Aellen

ISBN-10: 0817639640

ISBN-13: 9780817639648

ISBN-10: 1461220068

ISBN-13: 9781461220060

The share of aged humans maintains to extend within the western world-nearly 1 / 4 of the inhabitants may be over sixty five years via the 12 months 2050. for the reason that getting older is followed by means of a rise in illnesses and via a deterioration in healthiness, discovering recommendations to those social, clinical and mental difficulties is inevitably a huge aim for society. Scientists and scientific practitioners are hence confronted with the pressing job of accelerating easy wisdom of the organic approaches that reason getting older. extra assets has to be placed into this learn for you to in achieving greater figuring out of the mobile mechanisms that underlie the variations in existence span among species and to reply to the tricky questions of why a few participants age extra fast than others, and why a few advance liver difficulties, a few have cardiovascular disease, and others mind difficulties. the result of any such large software of study will supply very important information regarding the motives of many life-threatening and/ or debilitating illnesses of outdated age; it's going to support locate how you can hinder the various illnesses that outcome from getting older, and it might probably result in discoveries permitting the prolongation of human life.

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This nine-year follow-up study showed that people who maintained social connections and who remained active in social affairs, had lower mortality rates than people lacking social and community ties or people who retired from active personal involvement. In his study on 2700 older people, House confirmed this observation: "Regular volunteer work, more that any other activity, dramatically increased life expectancy" (House et aI, 1988). The mechanisms by which social networks influence health and mortality rates are not clear.

Physiology of the endocrine stress response and its modification with aging. Normal secretion of hormones and negative feed-back that occurs in stressful conditions are shown in Figure 8a (see text for abbreviations). Figure 8b shows the feed-back insensitivity due to senescent hippocampal neurons that results in glucocorticoid hypersecretion. Wellknown consequences and/or diseases caused by glucocorticoid hypersecretion are listed (Sapolsky et ai, 1986b). Factors That Influence Human Longevity 39 that the death of hippocampal neurons could explain the loss of sensitivity to glucocorticoid feed-back and might be the actual cause of the glucocorticoid hypersecretion with aging (Figure 8b).

The origin of the failure is, at least in part, in the brain, possibly at the level of the hippocampus (Sapolsky et aI, 1986a, b) where about 50% of cytosolic corticosteroid receptors are lost in aged rats (Sapolsky et aI, 1983). While the receptor loss is of considerable significance, it seems to be secondary to the loss of neurons themselves, specifically those neurons that express a high concentration of corticosteroid receptors. Sapolsky hypothesized 38 Aging and Human Longevity a) Stress response in normal conditions stmIA) I· -- down_OCI:f_A~ !

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Aging and Human Longevity by M.-F. Schulz-Aellen

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